— All about Pilsner

The origin
The City of Pilsen began brewing in 1295, but until the mid-1840s, most Bohemian beers were top-fermented. The taste and standards of quality often varied widely, and in 1838, consumers dumped whole barrels to show their dissatisfaction. The officials of Pilsen founded a city-owned brewery in 1839, called Měšťanský pivovar Plzeň (now - Pilsner Urquell), which was to brew beer in the pioneering Bavarian style. Brewers had begun aging beer made with bottom-fermenting yeasts in caves, which improved the beer's clarity and shelf-life. Part of this research benefited from the knowledge already expounded on in a book, written by Czech brewer Franz Andreas Paupie from Brno.
The Pilsen brewery recruited the Bavarian brewer Josef Groll who, using new techniques and paler malts, presented his first batch of modern pilsner on 5 October 1842. The combination brighter malt prepared by English technology, Pilsen's remarkably soft water, local Saaz noble hops from nearby Žatec and Bavarian-style lagering produced a clear, golden beer that was regarded as a sensation. Three years later in 1845, Groll returned to Vilshofen and there later inherited his father's brewery.
In 1853 the beer was available in 35 pubs in Prague, in 1856 came to Vienna and in 1862 to Paris. Improving transport and communications also meant that this new beer was soon available throughout Europe, and the Pilsner style of brewing was soon widely imitated. In 1859, “Pilsner Bier” was registered as a brand name at the Chamber of Commerce and TRADE in Pilsen. In 1898, the Pilsner Urquell trade mark was created to put emphasis on being the original brewery.
Modern time
The introduction to Germany of modern refrigeration by Carl von Linde in the late 19th century eliminated the need for caves for beer storage, enabling the brewing of bottom-fermenting beer in many new locations. Until recently the Pilsner Urquell brewery fermented its beer using open barrels in the cellars beneath their brewery. This changed in 1993 with the use of large cylindrical tanks. Small samples are still brewed in a traditional way for taste comparisons.
A modern pilsner has a very light, clear colour from pale to golden yellow and a distinct hop aroma and flavour. The alcohol strength is typically around 4.5%-5% (by volume), if pilsner is brewed stronger, it is usually labeled "Export". Pilsners compete in categories like "European-Style Pilsner" at the World Beer Cup or other similar competitions. Pilsen style lagers are marketed internationally by numerous small brewers and larger conglomerates.

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